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Philosophy

A guide for finding philosophy resources in UVic Libraries.

Citations

Indigenous Style Guide

Check out this new style guide specific to Indigenous topics and ways of knowing:

Elements of Indigenous style: a guide for writing by and about Indigenous Peoples

Citation Guides

Consult our citation help pages for quick guides:

UVic Style Guides - APA, MLA and more

Citation Management Tools
If you are working with a large number of citations, you may find it helpful to use an online citation management tool such as RefWorks, EndNote, or Mendeley.  There are numerous systems available, each with pros and cons.  The UVic Libraries' has created some guides and webpages to get you used to these systems and to compare. However, using a citation management tool is by no means a requirement, many researchers get by quite easily without them. 
 
Plagiarism
It is essential to give credit when you use other people's content in your academic work.  Your assignments and exams must be your own original work, not someone else's.
 
"The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc.,
and passing it off as one's own; literary theft.
(Oxford English Dictionary online, 2006)
 
Check out UVic Libraries' guides on what the types of plagiarism are and how to avoid plagiarism. 

Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

Western conceptions of academic authority don't always have ways to accommodate Traditional Knowledge. This has led to many citation styles not yet establishing guidelines on how to cite Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. 

While the official manuals of APA, MLA, and Chicago do not have any recommendations regarding how to cite Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers, some scholars have established templates in collaboration with Indigenous community members to guide students on how to integrate Indigenous Knowledge into their work while giving credit to the Knowledge Keepers in a culturally-conscious way. If you're unsure about using these templates, consult with your instructor. 

Remember that if you would like to ask an Indigenous Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, you should learn about their community's protocols beforehand and make sure to follow them.

The official APA Manual does not have a format to acknowledge Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers' authority as a reference. UVic Libraries recommends following the guidelines established by Lorisia MacLeod of NorQuest College. Cite Elders and Knowledge Keepers both in-text and in the reference list.

In-text citations should include the name of the Elder/Knowledge Keeper and the year of communication.

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2018).

OR

The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2018).

 

Reference list entries should be formatted as follows:

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.

 

Example reference list entry:

Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.

Thank you to Lorisia MacLeod (James Cree Nation), NorQuest College's Elder in Residence, Lekeyten, and NorQuest College's Indigenous Student Centre for developing guidance around citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers in APA.

The printed MLA Handbook (9th edition) does not include any guidance on citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. However, the digital MLA Handbook has endorsed the following guidelines, developed by Lorisia MacLeod of NorQuest College.

 

Works Cited entry should follow this template:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year.

 

Example Work Cited entry:

Cardinal, Delores, Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004.

Thank you to Lorisia MacLeod (James Cree Nation), NorQuest College's Elder in Residence, Lekeyten, and NorQuest College's Indigenous Student Centre for developing guidance around citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers in MLA.

Chicago Style has no official guidance on citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. We'd recommend following the template developed by Kwantlen Polytechnic University, in consultation with UBC and SFU. Chicago citations include a footnote and a bibliographic entry.

First footnote should be formatted as follows:

First Name Last Name (Elder), Nation/Community, topic/subject of communication if applicable, Personal communication, territorial acknowledgement of where the information was shared, month date, year.

Example:

Lekeyten (Elder), Kwantlen First Nation, Community Justice, Personal communication, Share on the traditional unceded territory of the Kwantlen, Musqueam, Katzie, Semiahmoo, Tsawwassen, Qayqayt, and Kwikwetlem Peoples, April 9, 2019.

 

The bibliographic reference should resemble this template:

Last Name, First Name (Elder), Nation. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Personal communication. Territorial acknowledgement of where the information was shared. Month Date, Year.

Example:

Lekeyten (Elder), Kwantlen First Nation. Community Justice. Personal communication. Shared on the traditional territory of the Kwantlen, Musqueam, Katzie, Semiahmoo, Tsawwassen, Qayqayt, and Kwikwatlem Peoples. April 9, 2019.

Thank you to Kwantlen Polytechnic University, the University of British Columbia, and Simon Fraser University, and the communities they consulted for developing guidance around citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers in Chicago.

Creative Commons License
This work by The University of Victoria Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License unless otherwise indicated when material has been used from other sources.