Research involving First Nations, Inuit, Métis or other Indigenous communities must follow specific considerations and protocols about how research data are managed, which are defined by those communities and respect their sovereignty over their information.
The Centre for Indigenous Research and Community-Led Engagement (CIRCLE) at the University of Victoria provides resources and support for UVic faculty, students and communities to undertake Indigenous research and related activities that are respectful of local Indigenous knowledge systems and worldviews.
Various principles exist to guide research data management practices that respect Indigenous data sovereignty. However, interpretations of these principles are specific to the communities involved, which may not necessarily address the distinct needs and values of distinct First Nations, Inuit and Métis.
The CARE Principles for Indigenous Data Governance reflect the role of data in advancing Indigenous innovation and self-determination. CARE stands for:
More information about the CARE Principles is available from the Global Indigenous Data Alliance.
The OCAP® Principles of data governance outline how to interact with First Nations data. OCAP® stands for:
OCAP® is a registered trademark of the First Nations Information Governance Centre (FNIGC). Certified training in OCAP® is available through the FNIGC's website.
The following Métis-specific culturally competent ethical research principles are adhered to by the Métis Centre at the National Aboriginal Health Organization in its research, who note for outside groups who choose to use or adapt them that "The principles are not intended to be enforceable rules that must be followed but rather are a well thought out starting point to engage Métis communities in ethical research." (Métis Centre of NAHO, 2018)
Source: National Aboriginal Health Organization (NAHO) (2018). Principles of Ethical Métis Research. Retrieved February 08 2023 from https://achh.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Guide_Ethics_NAHOMetisCentre.pdf
The Manitoba Metis Federation subscribes to the following "OCAS principles":
Source: University of Manitoba, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences (2019). Framework for Research Engagement with First Nation, Metis, and Inuit Peoples (p.14). [PDF] Retrieved February 08 2023 from https://umanitoba.ca/health-sciences/sites/health-sciences/files/2021-01/framework-research-report-fnmip.pdf
The term Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (IQ) describes Inuit epistemology or the Indigenous knowledge of the Inuit, which encompasses traditional knowledge, ecological knowledge, and local and community based knowledge. A fact sheet prepared for the National Collaborating Centre for Indigenous Health explores the six guiding principles of IQ and their application to research.
Source: Shirley Tagalik (2012). Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit: The role of Indigenous knowledge in supporting wellness in Inuit communities in Nunavut. [PDF] Retrieved February 08 2023 from https://www.nccih.ca/docs/health/FS-InuitQaujimajatuqangitWellnessNunavut-Tagalik-EN.pdf
Canada's Tri-Agency Research Data Management Policy affirms the importance of Indigenous data sovereignty and RDM principles that recognize and respect self-determination for First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples through a distinctions-based approach.. Data management plans (DMPs) should recognize Indigenous data sovereignty, indicate how partners have been involved in developing the DMP, and include options for renegotiation of the DMP.