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Engineering -- Computer Science

A guide to computer science resources in UVic Libraries

Citation help

Citation Style Guides

IEEE style examples

NOTE: Use et al. when three or more names are given.

References in text:

References need not be cited in the text. When they are, they appear on the line, in square brackets, inside the punctuation. Grammatically, they may be treated as if they were footnote numbers, e.g.,  as shown by Brown [4], [5]; as mentioned earlier [2], [4]–[7], [9]; Smith [4] and Brown and Jones [5]; Wood et al. [7]

or as nouns:

as demonstrated in [3]; according to [4] and [6]–[9].

References Within a Reference:

Check the reference list for ibid. or op. cit. These refer to a previous reference and should be eliminated from the reference section. In text, repeat the earlier reference number and renumber the reference section accordingly. If the  ibid. gives a new page number, or other information, use the following forms:

[3, Th. 1]; [3, Lemma 2]; [3, pp. 5-10]; [3, eq. (2)]; [3, Fig. 1]; [3, Appendix I]; [3, Sec. 4.5]; [3, Ch. 2, pp. 5-10];

[3, Algorithm 5].

NOTE: Editing of references may entail careful renumbering of references, as well as the citations in text.

Basic Format:

[#]  A. Author, Title: Subtitle (in italics), Edition(if not the first), Vol.(if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s) (if appropriate).

NOTE: Use et al. when three or more names are given.

Some examples from the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (Online):

  • [1] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 1986.
  • [2] L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.
  • [3] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA, USA: Academic, 1977, pp. 47-160.
  • [4] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC, USA: NBS, 1964, pp. 32-33.
  • [5] E. F. Moore, “Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines,” in Automata Studies (Ann. of Mathematical Studies, no. 1), C. E.  Shannon and J. McCarthy, Eds. Princeton, NJ, USA:  Princeton Univ. Press, 1965, pp. 129-153.
  • [6] Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Staff of Technology and Science, Aerospace Div.), Integrated Electronic Systems. Englewood  Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 1970.
  • [7] M. Gorkii, “Optimal design,” Dokl. Akad.  Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122, 1961  (Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. New York, NY, USA: Interscience, 1962, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127-135).
  • [8] G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, vol. 3, Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.

Books Online (Ebooks):

Books, Monographs (Online)Basic Format:

J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, State, Country:Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx. [Online]. Available:


  • G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, vol. 3, Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15–64. [Online]. Available: The Terahertz Wave eBook.ZOmega Terahertz Corp., 2014. [Online]. Available: Accessed: May 19, 2014.
  • P. B. Kurland and R. Lerner, Eds., The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago, IL, USA: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed: Feb. 28, 2010. [Online]. Available:

Basic Format:
[#] A. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year.

Some Examples from the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (Online)
[1] R. E. Kalman, “New results in linear filtering and prediction theory,” J. Basic Eng., ser. D, vol. 83, pp. 95-108, Mar. 1961.
[2] Ye. V. Lavrova, “Geographic distribution of ionospheric disturbances in the F2 layer,” Tr. IZMIRAN, vol. 19, no.29, pp. 31–43, 1961  (Transl.: E. R. Hope, Directorate of Scientific Information Services, Defence Research Board of Canada, Rep. T384R, Apr. 1963).
[3] E. P. Wigner, “On a modification of the Rayleigh–Schrodinger perturbation theory,” (in German), Math. Naturwiss. Anz. Ungar. Akad. Wiss., vol. 53, p. 475, 1935.
[4] E. H. Miller, “A note on reflector arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., to be published.***Always use this style when the paper has been accepted or scheduled for a future publication, i.e. do not use "to appear in."***
[5] C. K. Kim, “Effect of gamma rays on plasma,” submitted for publication.***Always use this style when the paper has not yet been accepted or scheduled for a future publication, i.e. do not use "to appear in."***
[6] W. Rafferty, “Ground antennas in NASA’s deep space telecommunications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 636-640, May 1994.

For Conference proceedings online: 

[#] A. Editor and B. Editor, Eds., Title of Conf.: Subtitle of conference, Month Date, Year, Location (optional). Place of publication: Name of  Publisher, Year. Available: Database Name (if appropriate), internet address. [Accessed: date of access].

Basic Format:
[#] J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” in Abbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State), year, pp. xxx-xxx.***Location of conference is optional***

For an electronic conference article when there are no page numbers:
[#] J. K. Author [two authors: J. K. Author and A. N. Writer ] [three or more authors: J. K. Author et al.],
“Title of Article,” in [Title of Conf. Record as], [copyright year] © [IEEE or applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record]. doi: [DOI number]

For an unpublished paper presented at a conference:
[#] J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” presented at the abbrev. Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State, year.

Reports in Print:

Basic Format:

J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Country, Rep. xxx, year.


  • E. E. Reber, R. L. Michell, and C. J. Carter, “Oxygen absorption in the earth’s atmosphere,” Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA, USA,Tech. Rep. TR-0200 (4230-46)-3, Nov. 1988.
  • J. H. Davis and J. R. Cogdell, “Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna,” Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas, Austin, Tech. Memo. NGL-006-69-3, Nov. 15, 1987.
  • R. E. Haskell and C. T. Case, “Transient signal propagation in lossless isotropic plasmas,” USAF Cambridge Res. Labs., Cambridge, MA, USA, Rep. ARCRL-66-234 (II), 1994, vol.2.
  • M. A. Brusberg and E. N. Clark, “Installation, operation, and data evaluation of an oblique-incidence ionosphere sounder system,” in “Radio Propagation Characteristics of the Washington-Honolulu Path,” Stanford Res. Inst., Stanford, CA, USA, Contract NOBSR-87615, Final Rep., Feb. 1995, vol. 1.

Online Reports:

Basic Format:
J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Company, City, State, Country, Rep. no., (optional: vol./issue), Date. Accessed: Date. [Online]. Available: site/path/file
  • R. J. Hijmans and J. van Etten, “Raster: Geographic analysis and modeling with raster data,” R Package Version 2.0-12, Jan. 12, 2012. [Online]. Available:
  • “Teralyzer,” Lytera UG, Kirchhain, Germany. Accessed: Jun. 5, 2014. [Online]. Available:F. Zhao, “Smartphone solutions white paper,” Shenzhen, China, Huawei, White Paper, 2012. [Online]. Available:
  • Bureau of Meteorology, “Bureauof Meteorology: Measuring Rainfall in Australia,” 2009. [Online]. Available:
  • GeoBasisNRWHYPERLINK "", “ATKIS—Digitale Topographische Karte1:25.000 (DTK25),” Bezirksregierung Köln, Cologne, Germany, 2012. [Online]. Available: ""tblatt_geobasis_HYPERLINK
  • P. Diament, S. L. Richert, and W. L. Lupatkin, “V-line surface-wave radiation and scanning,” Dept. Elect. Eng., Columbia Univ., New York, NY, USA, Sci. Rep. 85, Aug. 1991.

Standard format for citing online interviews, radio programs, you tube videos, however, the citation may vary depending on the format of the recording:

[#] A. A. Artist , Credit, and B. B. Artist, Credit, "Title of episode," Title of Programme: Subtitle, Date of recording, Year.  Place of recording: Publisher. [Format]. Available: Internet address. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

For a podcast:

[1] W. Rebecca, Speaker, Earth and it's crust, 2017 David Suzuki Lecture Series. Victoria (BC): University of Victoria; 2017. [Podcast]. Available: [Accessed Sept. 6, 2018].

W. Chen, Speaker, Applied Mechanics Audio Interview, AMR Audio Interviews, August 24, 2018. Applied Mechanics Reviews. [Podcasts]. [Accessed October 1, 2018].

For Interviews or other sources of communication that are unpublished:

Interviews and personal communications (conversations, emails, letters, etc.) generally are cited in footnotes are excluded from Bibliography.  

Footnotes format:

Interviewee/Email Sender First Name/Initial Surname, interview with/email to First Name Surname, Date of Interview.


1. Daniel Perry (CEO, Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure, BC), interview with Peter Parker, September 29, 2018.
2. David Perry (owner, Ocean's Enterprises), email message to Peter Parker, October 1, 2018.

Video Recordings standard format:

FirstInitial. LastName OR Screen name. "Title of video," YouTube, Date uploaded, Year. [Video file]. Available: URL. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].


University of Washington. "Explore UW Engineering - Mechanical Engineering," YouTube, Aug. 10, 2015 [Video file]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 28, 2018].

Below are examples of how to cite a standard in the APA Style, 7th Edition, and in the IEEE Style. To verify the citation style required for your assignments, please review your assignment or speak with your instructor for further guidance.

Depending on the citation style, a standard citation requires the following: organization that created the standard, the year of creation, the title of the standard, standard number and hyperlink.

Example of APA Style, 7th Edition

In-text Citation: 

First In-text Citation: (Canadian Standard Association [CSA], 2019)

Second In-text Citation: (CSA, 2019)

Reference List Citation: 

Canadian Standard Association. (2019). Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CSA Standard No. S6-19). Retrieved from https.....

Example of IEEE Citation Style

In-text Citation: [Reference Number] for example [1]

Reference List Citation: [1] Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code, CSA S6, 2019. [Online]. Available: https....



Comparison of Citation Management Options

Zotero Mendeley

Endnote Basic

Endnote Desktop
(compare Endnote versions)


Cost Free Free Free  $165 at UVic Bookstore Reference manager included with Word
License Open Source Closed Source Closed Source Closed Source Closed Source

Where do I get it? Endnote Website UVic Bookstore Free at Office 365 for Students
How much free online storage does it come with?  300MB (can purchase more). If you have personal cloud storage, you can also sync Zotero to your personal account.  2GB (can purchase more) 2GB for files (up to 50,000 references) Unlimited n/a
Desktop or browser based?  Desktop & web application for syncing Desktop & web application for syncing Browser only Desktop with web application for syncing Desktop

Can it capture citations from web? 

Yes Yes Through a bookmarklet or 9 predefined databases Through a bookmarklet or 6000 predefined databases No
What word processing programs does it work with Natively: Microsoft Word, LibreOffice, Google Docs; can use RTF scan for other programs like RStudio and LaTeX Microsoft Word using "Mendeley Cite" Microsoft Word using "Cite While You Write"  Microsoft Word using "Cite While You Write" Word
Can I use it on my mobile device?  Yes, limited use through a web interface Yes, iOS, Android & web interface Yes, iOS & web interface iOS app with Endnote Online Account No
Can I collaborate with others? Yes, through private or public group libraries on cloud. Yes, through private or public group libraries on cloud. Yes, you can share group library Yes, you can share groups library or share entire library with up to 100 people who are using Endnote X9, X8, X7 No
Can I share PDFs and other notes?  Yes, through private groups Yes, through private groups No, only citations Only with other people running the paid desktop versions of X7, X8, or X9 (100 person limit) No
Does it store PDFs?  Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Does it extract and store annotations?  Yes, using the Zotfile Plugin
Does it have open source plugins for added functionality?  Yes No No No No
How many citation styles are supported?  Unlimited (through community repository & you can build your own styles) Unlimited (through citation style repository) Top 21 styles More than 7,000 & user can add more.  12 (but you can customize XML file for more)
Where is my data stored?  Desktop; Cloud (if you sync) Desktop; Cloud (if you sync) Cloud Desktop; Cloud (if you sync) Desktop
Can I sync across multiple devices?  Yes Yes Yes Yes No
URL for download or use Mendeley Website My Endnote Web n/a 

Office 365 Students

Where can I find
support documents? 
Zotero Support Mendeley Support Endnote Support

Endnote Support

Office Support
Do the libraries offer workshops? Yes Yes On request On request No
updated:  August 2020
Creative Commons License
This work by The University of Victoria Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License unless otherwise indicated when material has been used from other sources.