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Psychology 201

This guide has been created to provide assistance for students in PSYC 201 who are working on their research assignment

Information Sources

Information comes in a variety of packages, including:

  • books
  • journal articles
  • conference proceedings
  • websites
  • government documents
  • laws and legislation
  • newspapers
  • reports
  • white papers (what is a white paper?)
  • policy briefs
  • statistics and data

Producers of this kind of information include commercial publishers, organizations, professional associations, higher education institutions, research "think tanks", and government.  These more traditional sources of information are what students typically use when writing academic essays. Some of these sources come from commercial publishers (books and articles), while others are published as grey literature.

With the advent of social media, students can also access less traditional sources of information, such as:

  • Internet forums
  • blogs
  • wikis
  • video sharing sites (e.g. YouTube)
  • social network platforms (e.g. Facebook)

Producers of this kind of information include the same groups listed above as well as anyone who has access to Internet.  While not a traditional source of information, social media networks are often some of the first to report on breaking news events or provide commentary and can have just as much value as some of the more traditional sources depending on the kind of essay you are writing.

Whether you’re using print or online sources, you will have to look in a variety of places in order to find information.  It is unrealistic to expect to find everything by doing a simple Google search.  While this may be a good place to start, you will need to search more than Google.  It is important to not only to find information but to find good information.   After all, your research should be the most appropriate and best for your paper, not just the easiest to access.

The next tabs in this guide introduce you to the various search tools available, effective search techniques, as well as strategies to evaluate the quality of the information you find.

Information Creation as a Process

Here are some questions to think about (or ask yourself) when trying to figure out the kinds of information sources that might best support your research. As you can see, there are many ways in which information is made available, and in many formats. 

information creation as a process

Special thanks to Bucknell University, Bertrand Library Research Services for creating and sharing this poster under a Creative Commons License.

Creative Commons License
This work by The University of Victoria Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License unless otherwise indicated when material has been used from other sources.