Skip to Main Content
askus Ask us

Education - Early Childhood Education

A starting place to help you find classroom resources for preschool and primary grade learning environments.

Cedar root bundle

                         Photo credit: Pia Russell, May 2022

Elements of Indigenous Style

Gregory Younging's Elements of Indigenous Style: A Guide for Writing by and about Indigenous Peoples is an excellent resource if you are drawing upon Indigenous ways of knowing within your scholarship. 

  1. Ebook
  2. Print book: PN147 Y68
  • McPherson stacks (two copies)
  • Law Library Reserve Reading Room
  • Victoria Native Friendship Centre Library

What is a DOI?

The new (7th) edition of APA asks for the DOI (Digital Object Identifier), if available, for citations for electronic journal articles. Note that a DOI does not always exist for an online article.  If the article has one, it can sometimes be found in the database entry (but not always) or is often included with the Journal Name at either the top or bottom of the first page of the article itself.

Alternatively, if you have the citation information, you can look up the DOI number in CrossRef:

1. Go to CrossRef's Free  DOI Lookup

2. Copy and paste your citation information and CrossRef will supply the DOI number, if available.

Avoiding plagiarism

It is essential to give credit when you use other people's content in your academic work.  Your assignments and exams must be your own original work, not someone else's.
"The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc.,
and passing it off as one's own; literary theft.
(Oxford English Dictionary online, 2006)
Check out UVic Libraries' guides on what the types of plagiarism are and how to avoid plagiarism. 

Video tutorial--Citation basics for UVic Education students

Video time stamps:

0:00-1:55          Introduction
1:56-3:24          Elements of Indigenous Style
3:25-13:09        American Psychological Association (APA)
13:10-25:50      Literature reviews and bibliographies
25:51-29:02      Citation management systems
29:03-30:34      Review and links for more help

Citations using APA

APA (American Psychological Association) citation style is the most frequently used citation style for studies in Education.  It follows the basic format of author last name, author first initial, year in brackets, article title, journal title italicized, volume italicized, number or issue in brackets, page range, and if you viewed this electronically you will need to include a 'Retrieved from' url which may include a DOI (digital object identifier). 

Here is an example:

Campbell, C. (2017). Developing teachers’ professional learning: Canadian evidence and experiences in a world of educational improvement. Canadian Journal of Education, 40(2), 1-33. Retrieved from


For many more examples of both in-text and reference list possibilities, consult our handy UVic Libraries' APA Quick Guide (7th ed).







For other citation style guides, such as MLA (Modern Language Association), consult our citation help pages: 
UVic Style Guide handouts - APA, MLA and more


Citation management systems

Citation management tools
If you are working with a large number of citations, you may find it helpful to use an online citation management tool such as Zotero, Medeley, RefWorks, or EndNote.  There are numerous systems available, each with pros and cons.  The UVic Libraries' has created some guides and webpages to get you used to these systems and to compare. However, using a citation management tool is by no means a requirement, many researchers get by quite easily without them. 
Check out our handy help guide comparing different citation tool options:
screen shot of libguide for citation management tools
Creative Commons License
This work by The University of Victoria Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License unless otherwise indicated when material has been used from other sources.