History of the term A.I. and the underlying concept
The term "Artificial Intelligence" was coined by computer scientist John McCarthy and his team at the University of Stanford in 1955. The term was mentioned for the first time in A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence. The proposal even provides an initial outline of the A.I. concept:
...the artificial intelligence problem is taken to be that of making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving.
McCarthy et al, 1955
More recent definitions have continued to appear very similar to the original conceptualization:
Al is best understood as a set of techniques aimed at approximating some aspect of human or animal cognition using machines.
Today, the term artificial intelligence is often used as an umbrella term under which various types, concepts or specific technologies may be categorized.
Please note: The terminology around A.I. is not being used consistently across resources, especially when it comes to A.I. typology. While definitions are mostly consistent in regards to A.I.-related technologies, the interchangeable use of some terms around types of A.I. can lead to confusion. UVic Libraries will vet and include resources here, that might help clarify A.I.-related terminology and that make it more comprehensive.
Different types of Artificial Intelligence that can be found in the literature include...
Technological concepts that are summarized under the A.I. umbrella term include
Watch this 4 minute video by the Boston Museum of Science for a quick introduction of what A.I. means: