Initial appearance of the term & the concept it describes
The term "Artificial Intelligence" was coined by computer scientist John McCarthy and his team at the University of Stanford in 1955. Not only is the term mentioned for the first time in A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, but an initial outline of the concept it is intended to characterize is also provided:
...the artificial intelligence problem is taken to be that of making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving.
McCarthy et al, 1955
Recent definitions - surprisingly similar
This early concept by McCarthy et al has not lost its relevance. More recent definitions have continued to appear very similar to this original notion:
Al is best understood as a set of techniques aimed at approximating some aspect of human or animal cognition using machines.
Artificial Intelligence is often used as an umbrella term under which various types, concepts or specific technologies may be categorized. A few examples of those types and technologies, that are relevant to understanding the current generation of A.I. applications are:
Please note that the terminology around A.I. is not being used consistently across resources, especially when it comes to A.I. typology. While consistency is relatively high and definitions are mostly clear in regards to A.I.-related technologies, the interchangeable use of some terms around certain types of A.I. can lead to confusion. UVic Libraries will vet and include resources here, that might help clarify A.I.-related terminology and that make it more comprehensive.
Different types of Artificial Intelligence that can be found in the literature include...
Technological concepts that are summarized under the A.I. umbrella term include
Watch this 4 minute video by the Boston Museum of Science for a quick introduction of what A.I. means: