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Engineering -- Civil Engineering

A guide to civil engineering resources in UVic Libraries

What is citation management?

Citing your papers is an important part of the research process.

However, citing your papers can also become one of the more frustrating and time-consuming parts of the research process. Citation management software can help you save time by allowing you to:

  • Collect citations from your online databases, library catalogues and websites
  • Organize, edit, and search through the citations you've saved
  • Build and organize bibliographies in well-known styles like APA, MLA, and even style-specific journals like Nature
  • Format citations for papers
  • Take notes on articles and save them in your collection of citations
  • Save and organize PDFs, screenshots, graphs, images, and other files for your research--even offline!

Which citation tool is right for you?

There are several free and discounted citation management software options available to students, staff and faculty at UVic:

Take a look at our tool-comparison guide to find one right for you. 

Citation Management: The Basics

IEEE style examples

NOTE: Use et al. when three or more names are given.

References in text:

References need not be cited in the text. When they are, they appear on the line, in square brackets, inside the punctuation. Grammatically, they may be treated as if they were footnote numbers, e.g.,  as shown by Brown [4], [5]; as mentioned earlier [2], [4]–[7], [9]; Smith [4] and Brown and Jones [5]; Wood et al. [7]

or as nouns:

as demonstrated in [3]; according to [4] and [6]–[9].

References Within a Reference:

Check the reference list for ibid. or op. cit. These refer to a previous reference and should be eliminated from the reference section. In text, repeat the earlier reference number and renumber the reference section accordingly. If the  ibid. gives a new page number, or other information, use the following forms:

[3, Th. 1]; [3, Lemma 2]; [3, pp. 5-10]; [3, eq. (2)]; [3, Fig. 1]; [3, Appendix I]; [3, Sec. 4.5]; [3, Ch. 2, pp. 5-10];

[3, Algorithm 5].

NOTE: Editing of references may entail careful renumbering of references, as well as the citations in text.

Basic Format:

[#]  A. Author, Title: Subtitle (in italics), Edition(if not the first), Vol.(if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s) (if appropriate).

NOTE: Use et al. when six or more names are given in the reference list.

Some examples from the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (Online):

  • [1] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 1986.
  • [2] L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.
  • [3] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA, USA: Academic, 1977, pp. 47-160.
  • [4] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC, USA: NBS, 1964, pp. 32-33.
  • [5] E. F. Moore, “Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines,” in Automata Studies (Ann. of Mathematical Studies, no. 1), C. E.  Shannon and J. McCarthy, Eds. Princeton, NJ, USA:  Princeton Univ. Press, 1965, pp. 129-153.
  • [6] Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Staff of Technology and Science, Aerospace Div.), Integrated Electronic Systems. Englewood  Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 1970.
  • [7] M. Gorkii, “Optimal design,” Dokl. Akad.  Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122, 1961  (Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. New York, NY, USA: Interscience, 1962, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127-135).
  • [8] G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, vol. 3, Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.

Books Online (Ebooks):

Books, Monographs (Online)Basic Format:

J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, State, Country:Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx. [Online]. Available:


  • G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, vol. 3, Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15–64. [Online]. Available: The Terahertz Wave eBook.ZOmega Terahertz Corp., 2014. [Online]. Available: Accessed: May 19, 2014.
  • P. B. Kurland and R. Lerner, Eds., The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago, IL, USA: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed: Feb. 28, 2010. [Online]. Available:

Basic Format:
[#] A. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year.

NOTE: Use et al. when six or more names are given in the reference list.

Some Examples from the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (Online)
[1] R. E. Kalman, “New results in linear filtering and prediction theory,” J. Basic Eng., ser. D, vol. 83, pp. 95-108, Mar. 1961.
[2] Ye. V. Lavrova, “Geographic distribution of ionospheric disturbances in the F2 layer,” Tr. IZMIRAN, vol. 19, no.29, pp. 31–43, 1961  (Transl.: E. R. Hope, Directorate of Scientific Information Services, Defence Research Board of Canada, Rep. T384R, Apr. 1963).
[3] E. P. Wigner, “On a modification of the Rayleigh–Schrodinger perturbation theory,” (in German), Math. Naturwiss. Anz. Ungar. Akad. Wiss., vol. 53, p. 475, 1935.
[4] E. H. Miller, “A note on reflector arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., to be published.***Always use this style when the paper has been accepted or scheduled for a future publication, i.e. do not use "to appear in."***
[5] C. K. Kim, “Effect of gamma rays on plasma,” submitted for publication.***Always use this style when the paper has not yet been accepted or scheduled for a future publication, i.e. do not use "to appear in."***
[6] W. Rafferty, “Ground antennas in NASA’s deep space telecommunications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 636-640, May 1994.

For Conference proceedings online: 

NOTE: Use et al. when six or more names are given in the reference list.

[#] A. Editor and B. Editor, Eds., Title of Conf.: Subtitle of conference, Month Date, Year, Location (optional). Place of publication: Name of  Publisher, Year. Available: Database Name (if appropriate), internet address. [Accessed: date of access].

Basic Format:
[#] J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” in Abbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State), year, pp. xxx-xxx.***Location of conference is optional***

For an electronic conference article when there are no page numbers:
[#] J. K. Author [two authors: J. K. Author and A. N. Writer ] [three or more authors: J. K. Author et al.],
“Title of Article,” in [Title of Conf. Record as], [copyright year] © [IEEE or applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record]. doi: [DOI number]

For an unpublished paper presented at a conference:
[#] J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” presented at the abbrev. Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State, year.

Reports in Print:

NOTE: Use et al. when six or more names are given in the reference list.

Basic Format:

J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Country, Rep. xxx, year.


  • E. E. Reber, R. L. Michell, and C. J. Carter, “Oxygen absorption in the earth’s atmosphere,” Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA, USA,Tech. Rep. TR-0200 (4230-46)-3, Nov. 1988.
  • J. H. Davis and J. R. Cogdell, “Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna,” Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas, Austin, Tech. Memo. NGL-006-69-3, Nov. 15, 1987.
  • R. E. Haskell and C. T. Case, “Transient signal propagation in lossless isotropic plasmas,” USAF Cambridge Res. Labs., Cambridge, MA, USA, Rep. ARCRL-66-234 (II), 1994, vol.2.
  • M. A. Brusberg and E. N. Clark, “Installation, operation, and data evaluation of an oblique-incidence ionosphere sounder system,” in “Radio Propagation Characteristics of the Washington-Honolulu Path,” Stanford Res. Inst., Stanford, CA, USA, Contract NOBSR-87615, Final Rep., Feb. 1995, vol. 1.

Online Reports:

Basic Format:
J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Company, City, State, Country, Rep. no., (optional: vol./issue), Date. Accessed: Date. [Online]. Available: site/path/file
  • R. J. Hijmans and J. van Etten, “Raster: Geographic analysis and modeling with raster data,” R Package Version 2.0-12, Jan. 12, 2012. [Online]. Available:
  • “Teralyzer,” Lytera UG, Kirchhain, Germany. Accessed: Jun. 5, 2014. [Online]. Available:F. Zhao, “Smartphone solutions white paper,” Shenzhen, China, Huawei, White Paper, 2012. [Online]. Available:
  • Bureau of Meteorology, “Bureauof Meteorology: Measuring Rainfall in Australia,” 2009. [Online]. Available:
  • GeoBasisNRWHYPERLINK "", “ATKIS—Digitale Topographische Karte1:25.000 (DTK25),” Bezirksregierung Köln, Cologne, Germany, 2012. [Online]. Available: ""tblatt_geobasis_HYPERLINK
  • P. Diament, S. L. Richert, and W. L. Lupatkin, “V-line surface-wave radiation and scanning,” Dept. Elect. Eng., Columbia Univ., New York, NY, USA, Sci. Rep. 85, Aug. 1991.

Standard format for citing online interviews, radio programs, you tube videos, however, the citation may vary depending on the format of the recording:

NOTE: Use et al. when six or more names are given in the reference list.

[#] A. A. Artist , Credit, and B. B. Artist, Credit, "Title of episode," Title of Programme: Subtitle, Date of recording, Year.  Place of recording: Publisher. [Format]. Available: Internet address. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

For a podcast:

[1] W. Rebecca, Speaker, Earth and it's crust, 2017 David Suzuki Lecture Series. Victoria (BC): University of Victoria; 2017. [Podcast]. Available: [Accessed Sept. 6, 2018].

W. Chen, Speaker, Applied Mechanics Audio Interview, AMR Audio Interviews, August 24, 2018. Applied Mechanics Reviews. [Podcasts]. [Accessed October 1, 2018].

For Interviews or other sources of communication that are unpublished:

Interviews and personal communications (conversations, emails, letters, etc.) generally are cited in footnotes are excluded from Bibliography.  

Footnotes format:

Interviewee/Email Sender First Name/Initial Surname, interview with/email to First Name Surname, Date of Interview.


1. Daniel Perry (CEO, Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure, BC), interview with Peter Parker, September 29, 2018.
2. David Perry (owner, Ocean's Enterprises), email message to Peter Parker, October 1, 2018.

Video Recordings standard format:

NOTE: Use et al. when six or more names are given in the reference list.

FirstInitial. LastName OR Screen name. "Title of video," YouTube, Date uploaded, Year. [Video file]. Available: URL. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].


University of Washington. "Explore UW Engineering - Mechanical Engineering," YouTube, Aug. 10, 2015 [Video file]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 28, 2018].

Standards - Basic Format

Title of Standard, Standard number, Corporate author, location, date.

Title of Standard, Standard number, date.


  • Parameter Values for Ultra-High Definition Television Systems for Switzerland, Production and International Programme Exchange, Rec. ITU-R BT.2020-2, International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, Switzerland, Oct. 2015.
  • IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.
  • Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5-1968.

Standard Online - Basic Format:

 Title of Standard, Standard number, Corporate author, location, date. [Online]. Available:

 Title of Standard, Standard number, date. [Online]. Available:


  • Frequency Response and Bias, NERC Reliability Standard BAL-003-0.1b, May 2009. [Online]. Available:

Patent Retain or request the day of the month when referencing a patent. NOTE: Use “issued date” if several dates are given.

Basic Format:

J. K. Author, “Title of patent,” U.S. Patent x xxx xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year.

J. K. Author, “Title of patent,” Country Patent xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year.


  • J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, Jul. 16, 1990.
  • T. Mei and T. Yang, “Circuit and method for average–current regulation of light-emitting diodes,” U.S. Patent 7 898 187 B1, 2011, Mar. 1, 2012.
  • W. W. Black and A. Clavin, “Dipole augmented slot radiating element,” U.S. Patent 3594806, Jul. 1971.
  • S. P. Voinigescu et al., Direct m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) operating in saturated power mode,” U.S. Patent Appl. 20110013726A1, Jan. 20, 2011.
  • K. Klionovski, “Broadband dual-band microstrip antenna,” (in Russian), RU Patent Utility Model 167296, Dec. 27, 2016.

Patent Online Basic Format:

Name of the invention, by inventor’s name. (year, month day). Patent Number [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file


  • Musical toothbrush with adjustable neck and mirror, by L. M. R. Brooks. (1992, May 19).
  • Patent D 326 189 [Online]. Available: NEXIS Library: LEXPAT File: DESIGN
  • Screwless clip mounted computer drive, by D. Williams. (2005, Apr. 26). U.S. Patent 6,885,550 [Online]. Available:,885,550
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