History of the term & its core concept
Artificial Intelligence is a term coined by Stanford University computer scientist John McCarthy in 1955. It was mentioned for the first time in A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence. The proposal includes an initial outline of the A.I. concept:
...the artificial intelligence problem is taken to be that of making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving.
McCarthy et al, 1955
To this day, the notion of the 'artificial intelligence' concept is one of computer systems that achieve human-like cognitive capabilities with all its implications, like reasoning, problem-solving, etc.
Hence, more recent definitions continue to stay close to the John McCarthy's original conceptualization of the term:
AI is best understood as a set of techniques aimed at approximating some aspect of human or animal cognition using machines.
Artificial Intelligence is often used as an umbrella term. It categroizes various types, concepts or specific technologies.
Please note: The terminology around A.I. is not being used consistently across resources, especially when it comes to A.I. typology. While definitions are mostly consistent in regards to A.I.-related technologies, the interchangeable use of some terms around types of A.I. can lead to confusion. UVic Libraries will vet and include resources here, that might help clarify A.I.-related terminology and that make it more comprehensive.
Types of A.I. described in academic literature include...
Technological concepts that are summarized under the A.I. umbrella term include
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