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International law

Proper citation of international treaties

Cite international treaties, agreements, or conventions as follows:

   Title, names of countries /parties (if applicable) , date of signature, treaty series reference(s), in force date.


   International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 19 December 1966, 999  U.N.T.S. 171, (entered into force 23 March 1976).

In the above example the parties are not named, because it is a multilateral treaty.

Consult the Harvard Bluebook or the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation for further explanations.


Zotero is a free and open-source citation management tool developed specifically for academic researchers, and it suits the needs of lawyers as well. It outputs citations in the McGill Guide style and is an excellent tool for assembling research materials, especially web-based documents.

Citation style guides

There are many citation styles and the library has many citation style guides both online and in print.

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