NOTE: Use et al. when three or more names are given.
References in text:
References need not be cited in the text. When they are, they appear on the line, in square brackets, inside the punctuation. Grammatically, they may be treated as if they were footnote numbers, e.g., as shown by Brown , ; as mentioned earlier , –, ; Smith  and Brown and Jones ; Wood et al. 
or as nouns:
as demonstrated in ; according to  and –.
References Within a Reference:
Check the reference list for ibid. or op. cit. These refer to a previous reference and should be eliminated from the reference section. In text, repeat the earlier reference number and renumber the reference section accordingly. If the ibid. gives a new page number, or other information, use the following forms:
[3, Th. 1]; [3, Lemma 2]; [3, pp. 5-10]; [3, eq. (2)]; [3, Fig. 1]; [3, Appendix I]; [3, Sec. 4.5]; [3, Ch. 2, pp. 5-10];
[3, Algorithm 5].
NOTE: Editing of references may entail careful renumbering of references, as well as the citations in text.
[#] A. Author, Title: Subtitle (in italics), Edition(if not the first), Vol.(if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s) (if appropriate).
NOTE: Use et al. when three or more names are given.
Books Online (Ebooks):
Books, Monographs (Online)Basic Format:
J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, State, Country:Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx. [Online]. Available: http://www.web.com
[#] A. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year.
Some Examples from the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (Online):
 R. E. Kalman, “New results in linear filtering and prediction theory,” J. Basic Eng., ser. D, vol. 83, pp. 95-108, Mar. 1961.
 Ye. V. Lavrova, “Geographic distribution of ionospheric disturbances in the F2 layer,” Tr. IZMIRAN, vol. 19, no.29, pp. 31–43, 1961 (Transl.: E. R. Hope, Directorate of Scientific Information Services, Defence Research Board of Canada, Rep. T384R, Apr. 1963).
 E. P. Wigner, “On a modification of the Rayleigh–Schrodinger perturbation theory,” (in German), Math. Naturwiss. Anz. Ungar. Akad. Wiss., vol. 53, p. 475, 1935.
 E. H. Miller, “A note on reflector arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., to be published.***Always use this style when the paper has been accepted or scheduled for a future publication, i.e. do not use "to appear in."***
 C. K. Kim, “Effect of gamma rays on plasma,” submitted for publication.***Always use this style when the paper has not yet been accepted or scheduled for a future publication, i.e. do not use "to appear in."***
 W. Rafferty, “Ground antennas in NASA’s deep space telecommunications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 636-640, May 1994.
For Conference proceedings online:
[#] A. Editor and B. Editor, Eds., Title of Conf.: Subtitle of conference, Month Date, Year, Location (optional). Place of publication: Name of Publisher, Year. Available: Database Name (if appropriate), internet address. [Accessed: date of access].
[#] J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” in Abbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State), year, pp. xxx-xxx.***Location of conference is optional***
For an electronic conference article when there are no page numbers:
[#] J. K. Author [two authors: J. K. Author and A. N. Writer ] [three or more authors: J. K. Author et al.],
“Title of Article,” in [Title of Conf. Record as], [copyright year] © [IEEE or applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record]. doi: [DOI number]
For an unpublished paper presented at a conference:
[#] J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” presented at the abbrev. Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State, year.
Reports in Print:
J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Country, Rep. xxx, year.
Standard format for citing online interviews, radio programs, you tube videos, however, the citation may vary depending on the format of the recording:
[#] A. A. Artist , Credit, and B. B. Artist, Credit, "Title of episode," Title of Programme: Subtitle, Date of recording, Year. Place of recording: Publisher. [Format]. Available: Internet address. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].
For a podcast:
 W. Rebecca, Speaker, Earth and it's crust, 2017 David Suzuki Lecture Series. Victoria (BC): University of Victoria; 2017. [Podcast]. Available: https://dspace.uvic.ca/earthanditscrustpodcast. [Accessed Sept. 6, 2018].
W. Chen, Speaker, Applied Mechanics Audio Interview, AMR Audio Interviews, August 24, 2018. Applied Mechanics Reviews. [Podcasts]. http://appliedmechanicsreviews.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/podcasts.aspx. [Accessed October 1, 2018].
For Interviews or other sources of communication that are unpublished:
Interviews and personal communications (conversations, emails, letters, etc.) generally are cited in footnotes are excluded from Bibliography.
Interviewee/Email Sender First Name/Initial Surname, interview with/email to First Name Surname, Date of Interview.
Video Recordings standard format:
FirstInitial. LastName OR Screen name. "Title of video," YouTube, Date uploaded, Year. [Video file]. Available: URL. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].
University of Washington. "Explore UW Engineering - Mechanical Engineering," YouTube, Aug. 10, 2015 [Video file]. Available: https://youtu.be/eUvkwxbMWdE. [Accessed: Sept. 28, 2018].
Below are examples of how to cite a standard in the APA Style, 7th Edition, and in the IEEE Style. To verify the citation style required for your assignments, please review your assignment or speak with your instructor for further guidance.
Depending on the citation style, a standard citation requires the following: organization that created the standard, the year of creation, the title of the standard, standard number and hyperlink.
First In-text Citation: (Canadian Standard Association [CSA], 2019)
Second In-text Citation: (CSA, 2019)
Reference List Citation:
Canadian Standard Association. (2019). Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CSA Standard No. S6-19). Retrieved from https.....
Example of IEEE Citation Style
In-text Citation: [Reference Number] for example 
Reference List Citation:  Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code, CSA S6, 2019. [Online]. Available: https....
Some databases and online journals include DOI (Digital Object Identifier) numbers within the record for each article. DOIs are unique numbers assigned to digital objects that will not change over time.
The basic guideline for citing online sources is to follow the standard citation for the source given previously and add the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) at the end of the citation, or add the DOI in place of page numbers if the source is not paginated. The DOI for each IEEE conference article is assigned when the article is processed for inclusion in the IEEE Xplore digital library and is included with the reference data of the article in Xplore. See The DOI System for more information about the benefits of DOI referencing.
Example of article with DOI:
F. Shang, H. Wu, G. Niu, M. Krishnamurthy and A. Isurin, "Dynamic Analysis and Control Approach for a High-Gain Step-Up Converter for Electrified Transportation," in IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 656-667, Sept. 2017. doi: 10.1109/TTE.2017.2743418
|Cost||Free||Free||Free||$165 at UVic Bookstore||Reference manager included with Word|
|License||Open Source||Closed Source||Closed Source||Closed Source||Closed Source|
Where do I get it?
|zotero.org||mendeley.com||Endnote Website||UVic Bookstore||Free at Office 365 for Students|
|How much free online storage does it come with?||300MB (can purchase more). If you have personal cloud storage, you can also sync Zotero to your personal account.||2GB (can purchase more)||2GB for files (up to 50,000 references)||Unlimited||n/a|
|Desktop or browser based?||Desktop & web application for syncing||Desktop & web application for syncing||Browser only||Desktop with web application for syncing||Desktop|
Can it capture citations from web?
|Yes||Yes||Through a bookmarklet or 9 predefined databases||Through a bookmarklet or 6000 predefined databases||No|
|What word processing programs does it work with||Natively: Microsoft Word, LibreOffice, Google Docs; can use RTF scan for other programs like RStudio and LaTeX||Microsoft Word using "Mendeley Cite"||Microsoft Word using "Cite While You Write"||Microsoft Word using "Cite While You Write"||Word|
|Can I use it on my mobile device?||Yes, limited use through a web interface||Yes, iOS, Android & web interface||Yes, iOS & web interface||iOS app with Endnote Online Account||No|
|Can I collaborate with others?||Yes, through private or public group libraries on cloud.||Yes, through private or public group libraries on cloud.||Yes, you can share group library||Yes, you can share groups library or share entire library with up to 100 people who are using Endnote X9, X8, X7||No|
|Can I share PDFs and other notes?||Yes, through private groups||Yes, through private groups||No, only citations||Only with other people running the paid desktop versions of X7, X8, or X9 (100 person limit)||No|
|Does it store PDFs?||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Does it extract and store annotations?||Yes, using the Zotfile Plugin|
|Does it have open source plugins for added functionality?||Yes||No||No||No||No|
|How many citation styles are supported?||Unlimited (through community repository & you can build your own styles)||Unlimited (through citation style repository)||Top 21 styles||More than 7,000 & user can add more.||12 (but you can customize XML file for more)|
|Where is my data stored?||Desktop; Cloud (if you sync)||Desktop; Cloud (if you sync)||Cloud||Desktop; Cloud (if you sync)||Desktop|
|Can I sync across multiple devices?||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|URL for download or use||zotero.org||Mendeley Website||My Endnote Web||n/a|
|Where can I find
|Zotero Support||Mendeley Support||Endnote Support||Office Support|
|Do the libraries offer workshops?||Yes||Yes||On request||On request||No|